Hypertension - Dr Shashank Jain
[Up] [Definition & criteria] [Cardiovascular anatomy] [Hypertension causes] [High risk group] [Manifestations] [Complications] [Investigations] [Management principles] [Management] [Prevention] [Questions & answers] [Checking Blood pressure] [Medicines]
Hypertension, high blood
Facts about Hypertension
Defined as blood pressure, persistently
exceeding 140/90 mm of mercury (mm.Hg).
Most commonly detected on routine check
ups, as it has no symptoms for initial several years of onset, until
it becomes severe and life threatening.
Hypertension is a multi system
disorder, as uncontrolled, long standing high blood pressure can
effect various organs and systems causing 'End Organ Damage'. The
typical examples are:
Examples of end organ
damage due to hypertension.
Angina and Heart attacks.
Stroke and paralysis.
Eye damage (Retinopathy or
retinal damage) causing blindness.
Kidney damage and failure.
Nerve damage. (Neuropathies).
Factors effecting long term
outcome of disease
Failure to detect it in initial stages,
often leads to irreversible complications , resulting in decreased life
expectancy and quality of life.
Hypertension has underlying causes,
aggravating factors, associated illnesses and high risk factors.
'Superficial treatment' of hypertension
without proper assessment of cause, and associated risk factors ,can
not achieve long term goals of minimizing complications and increasing
Several anti hypertensive drugs are
available ,which can all control high blood pressure ,but choosing the
most appropriate for a particular patient is most crucial. Certain anti
hypertensive can thus favorably or un favorably effect other coexisting
illnesses and may have additional beneficial, or harm full effect on
various parameters like: blood sodium levels, serum cholesterol levels
Certain anti hypertensive drugs may have
additional beneficial effects on coexisting diseases like Diabetes and
Angina and thus become, 'The Drug Of Choice' in these patients.
Management of a patient of
Steps in management
'High Risk Groups'.
Early diagnosis and prompt
Constant monitoring of blood
Thorough clinical examination
Assessment of cause, risks
and aggravating factors.
Detection of coexisting
'End Organ Damage'.
(complications of Hypertension).
investigations to detect cause,
associated risk factors, coexisting diseases, and to detect 'End Organ
Ensuring regular medicine
intake by the patient by proper education.
'Life Style Modification '
including healthy eating habits, stress on
physical exercises, avoiding smoking and alcohol intake.