[Up] [Definition & criteria] [Cardiovascular anatomy] [Hypertension causes] [High risk group] [Manifestations] [Complications] [Investigations] [Management principles] [Management] [Prevention] [Questions & answers] [Checking Blood pressure] [Medicines]
Causes of Hypertension
Hypertension are of two
The majority (95%) of patients fall
into category of 'Essential Hypertension.' In these patients, no
underlying cause is found.
In the minority (<5%), an underlying
cause is found upon investigation.
Secondary causes of Hypertension
(inflammation of kidneys )
(pus in kidneys )
Renal artery stenosis
( blockage of
kidney blood vessel )
Chronic renal failure
failure due to any cause )
Polycystic renal disease (multiple cysts
in kidneys )
progesterone combination therapy.
Coarctation of Aorta
'Risk Factors' for
Sedentary Life Style.
(lack of Exercise)
High Calorie Fatty
(Increased levels of Bad Cholesterols and /or decreased levels of
Family history of
Family history of
premature cardiovascular diseases like : Stroke, Heart attacks,
like: Diabetes, Heart diseases.
History of taking
drugs like Steroids, or anti inflammatory drugs.
Pat history of
Hypertensive complications, such as: Stroke, Heart attacks or
'Transient Ischemic Attack' (momentary loss of consciousness)
Previous history of
urinary tract infection or renal disease.
Causes and Incidence
The cause of primary (essential)
hypertension is unknown.
However, known risk factors include a
familial history of the disease, race, obesity, tobacco smoking,
stress, and a high-fat or high-sodium diet in genetically
Secondary hypertension is related to
an underlying disease process such as renal parenchyma disorders,
renal artery disease, endocrine and metabolic disorders, central
nervous system disorders, and coarctation of the aorta.
Million of people all over the world
have hypertension, which is a major factor in strokes and cardiac
and renal disease.
Hypertension is a disease of the
vascular regulatory system in which the mechanisms that usually
control arterial pressure within a certain (normal) range are
altered. The central nervous system and renal presser system, as
well as extra cellular volume, are the predominant mechanisms that
control arterial pressure. Some combination of factors effects
changes in one or more of these systems, ultimately leading to
increased cardiac output and increased peripheral resistance. This
elevates the arterial pressure, reducing cerebral perfusion and the
cerebral oxygen supply, increasing the myocardial workload and
oxygen consumption, and decreasing the blood flow to and oxygenation
of the kidneys.