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[Up] [Consultations] [Emergency treatments] [Investigations] [Physiotherapy] [Obesity clinic] [Vaccinations]

 [Communicable diseases]

                     

 

  • Include vaccination against diseases to ensure proper and complete immunization of all children.

 

 

IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE

( INDIAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS )

              Age                                     Vaccine     

 

Birth

06 weeks

10 weeks

14 weeks

18 weeks

22 weeks

26 weeks

09 months

16-18 months

18 months

01 year and above

02 years and above

05 years

10 years

16 years

Pregnant women

Puberty onwards 

 

BCG, OPV -1, Hepatitis B-1

OPV -2, DPT- 1, Hepatitis B-2

OPV -3, DPT- 2, Hepatitis B-3, Hib-1

OPV -4, DPT- 3, Hib-2

OPV -5, Hib-2, Hib-3

OPV -6

OPV -7

Measles

MMR, Hib (booster)

DPT 1st booster, OPV 1st booster, Hep A2

Hepatitis A-1, Chickenpox vaccine

Typhoid Vi, Meningococcal meningitis, Pneumococcal

DPT/DT  2nd booster, OPV 2nd booster

Tetanus Toxoid

Tetanus Toxoid

Tetanus Toxoid -2 doses at 4 wks interval

Rubella (German Measles) for females only

 

 

                                  

NEWER VACCINES

            VACCINE                                        SCHEDULE     

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B

Chickenpox 

Hib (H. Influenza)

Rubella (German Measles)

Typhoid Vi Antigen.

Meningococcal Meningitis

Pneumococcal

0, 6-12 Months ( > 1 year and adults)

0,1,5 Months./ 0,1,1 Months; Booster after 1yr. (Birth onwards, adults)

single dose (1-12 years);>12 years 2 doses 6-10 weeks gap 

0, 2, 4 Mo; booster >15 mo (> 2 months of age)

single dose (Puberty onwards, only Girls)

single dose, every 3 years (>2 years , adults)

single dose, every 2 years (>2 years , adults)

single dose, every 2 years (>2 years , adults)

 

       

TYPES OF VACCINES

     Type of antigen                                        Examples

Live bacteria, attenuated

Live virus, attenuated

Killed bacteria

Killed virus

Toxoid

Capsular polysaccharide

Viral subunit

Bacterial subunit

BCG, Ty21a

OPV, Mumps, Measles, Rubella

Pertussis, Salmonella Typhi.

IPV (injectable polio vaccine), Rabies, HAV

DT, TT

Typhoid Vi, Hib, Meningococcal, Pneumococcal 

HBSAg Ag

Acellular Pertussis

 

 

Key words

 

Vaccination

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Process of inoculating the vaccine/antigen.

Immunization

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 Process of inducing immune response.

Sero Conversion

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Change from antibody negative state to antibody positive state.

Antibody titer

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Measures extent of antibody formation after vaccination (reciprocal of highest serum dilution at which antibody  has been detected.)

Geometric mean titer (GMT)

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The mean antibody titer in a group of seroconverted individuals)

Contraindication

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Strictly not indicated or not to be given.

 

Immunizations

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Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Hemophilus meningitis, and Hepatitis can be killers. 

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These diseases can all be prevented with immunization. 

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All infants and children should be completely immunized against these infections. 

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Adults also need protection against certain diseases like hepatitis A & B, Typhoid, Chickenpox etc. Protect yourself and your family by making sure that everyone is adequately immunized.

 

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Before receiving any immunizations, be sure to tell the nurse of doctor if you or your child is allergic to eggs or has a serious illness. Certain vaccines cannot be given during pregnancy or to people who have immune disorders, such as lymphoma, leukemia, and AIDS.

 

Adolescents and young adults

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Between 14 and 16 years, immunization against tetanus and diphtheria (DT vaccine) is needed. The DT vaccine is given in three doses for previously vaccinated persons. (Otherwise, a booster is given.) The first and second doses are 8 weeks apart, and the third dose is 6 to 12 months after the second dose. After that, a single DT booster is needed every 10 years.

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Recent outbreaks of measles among young adults have pointed to the need for revaccination. Colleges and other post-high school educational institutions are now requiring proof of two doses of measles vaccine. Anyone who has not had both doses will need to be vaccinated, either with the MMR vaccine or the measles vaccine.

 

Adults over 25 years

A DT booster is needed every 10 years. People over age 65 years should also be vaccinated against Influenza and pneumonia.

 

People with special risks

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Chronic illnesses. 

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People with blood clotting diseases (hemophilia) and dialysis patients should be vaccinated against Hepatitis. Vaccines for influenza and pneumonia are recommended for people with any chronic health problem.

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Life-style risks. 

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Unprotected sex and injection drug use put individuals at high risk for Hepatitis B infection.

 

Travelers. 

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Adult travelers outside the country may need to update their immunizations, particularly Hepatitis, Yellow fever etc.

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Immigrants, refugees, and foreign students. 

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Many countries do not routinely immunize. As a result, persons entering the country. should be immunized.

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Residents of institutions. 

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Outbreaks of Hepatitis, TB, Chicken pox, Measles, Typhoid and other infectious diseases can occur in correctional facilities and institutions for the mentally retarded.

 

Side effects of vaccines

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Vaccines are carefully tested for both effectiveness and safety before they are approved. Some soreness, redness, and swelling at the injection site can be expected with most vaccines. Usually these symptoms are very mild and disappear after 1 or 2 days. 

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Call the doctor immediately if any of the following symptoms occur after vaccination: Fever of 100o F or more, severe headache, swelling of the mouth and throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fainting, or seizures.

 

Immunity

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The quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a certain disease or state. Kinds of immunity are Active immunity and Passive immunity.

Passive immunity

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A  form of immunity from antibodies that are carried through the placenta to a fetus or through a breast substance (colostrums) from a mother to an infant.

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Passive immunity is also caused by injecting ready made antibodies  (antiserum) for treatment or prevention.

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Passive immunity is not permanent and does not last as long as active immunity.

 

Active immunity

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A  form of long-term, gained immunity. It protects the body from new infection. 

 

Immune system

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A complex that protects the body from disease organisms and other foreign bodies.

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The system includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response.

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The immune system also protects the body from invasion by making local barriers and inflammation.

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The humoral response and the cell-mediated response develop if these first defenses fail to protect the body.

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The humoral immune response is especially effective against bacterial and viral invasions.

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The main organs of the immune response system are the bone marrow, the thymus, and the lymphoid tissues. The system uses other organs, too, as the lymph nodes, the spleen, and the lymphatic vessels.

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The response may start as soon as the antigen invades or start as long as 48 hours later

 

Immunization

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A process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented.

 

DTP 

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Protects against Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis. Children need a total of five doses (DTP-1, DTP-2, etc.) before reaching school age.

 

DT (diphtheria and tetanus) 

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Is given after age 14 years.

 

OPV 

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Is oral polio vaccine, and children need a total of seven doses (OPV-1, OPV-2, etc.) before reaching school age.

 

MMR 

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Immunizes against measles, mumps, and rubella. Two doses (MMR-1 and MMR-2) are necessary. 

 

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) 

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Vaccine protects against a type of meningitis that particularly affects children. This vaccine is given in 4 or 3 doses (option 1 or 2, depending on the type of vaccine that is used).

 

Hepatitis b (HB) 

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Vaccine is recommended for infants and any person of any age who is at risk for exposure to hepatitis b. This vaccine is given in a series of 3 or 4 doses (option 1 or 2, depending on the type of vaccine that is used).

 

BCG 

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Vaccine is administered  to protect against tuberculosis (TB). 

 

Pneumococcal vaccine

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An active vaccination drug with foreign bodies (antigens) of the 14 types of Pneumococcus linked to 80% of the cases of pneumococcal pneumonia.

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It is given to patients over 2 years of age who are at high risk of getting severe pneumococcal pneumonia.

 

 

 

                         

JAINS CLINIC, E2 CHURCH COMPOUND, SUKHDEV VIHAR, NEW DELHI-25, INDIA

 

Ph: +91-9312403074; +91-11-26922890

 

TIMINGS VACCINATION

 

MONDAY - SATURDAY  

8.30 A.M. - 12.30 P.M. ; 5.30 P.M. - 8.30 P.M. 

 

SUNDAY

9. A.M - 1 P.M

 

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