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                        Bleeding nosebleed

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Up | First aid kit | Blood pressure | Temperature pulse | CPR | Abrasions | Bleeding nosebleed | Burns | Dog bite | Fractures Dislocations | Poisonings | Snake bite | Bee sting | Chocking | Fainting | Electric shock | Convulsions | Heat stroke frost bite | Splints | Practical First aid

Bleeding

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        

 

                Apply direct pressure.                            Elevate the injured part.                       Apply tourniquet.

 

 

      Elevate wound above heart, apply direct pressure, apply tourniquet and, call emergency no and someone to get help.

 

 

 Bleeding

 Major bleeding may be a life-threatening condition requiring immediate attention.

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Bleeding may be external or internal.

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Bleeding may be from an artery, a major blood vessel which carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart throughout the body. It may be from a vein, which carries blood back to the heart to be oxygenated or bleeding may be from a capillary, the smallest of our body's blood vessels.

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Arterial bleeding is characterized by spurts with each beat of the heart, is bright red in color (although blood darkens when it meets the air) and is usually severe and hard to control. Arterial bleeding requires immediate attention!

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Venous bleeding is characterized by a steady flow and the blood is dark, almost maroon in shade. Venus bleeding is easier to control than Arterial bleeding.

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Capillary bleeding is usually slow, oozing in nature and this type of bleeding usually has a higher risk of infection than other types of bleeding.
 

 Steps in First aid to control bleeding.

  1. To stop bleeding.

  2. To prevent secondary infection.

  3. To prevent shock due to excessive bleeding.

 

 How to control bleeding

 

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Apply DIRECT PRESSURE on the wound. use a dressing, if available. if a dressing is not available, use a rag, towel, piece of clothing or your hand alone.

 

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IMPORTANT:
ONCE PRESSURE IS APPLIED, KEEP IT IN PLACE. IF DRESSINGS BECOME SOAKED WITH BLOOD, APPLY NEW DRESSINGS OVER THE OLD DRESSINGS. THE LESS A BLEEDING WOUND IS DISTURBED, THE EASIER IT WILL BE TO STOP THE BLEEDING!

 

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If bleeding continues, and you do not suspect a fracture, ELEVATE the wound above the level of the heart and continue to apply direct pressure.

 

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If the bleeding still cannot be controlled, the next step is to apply PRESSURE AT A PRESSURE POINT. For wounds of the arms or hands, pressure points are located on the inside of the wrist ( radial artery-where a pulse is checked) or on the inside of the upper arm (brachial artery). For wounds of the legs, the pressure point is at the crease in the groin (femoral artery). Steps 1 and 2 should be continued with use of the pressure points.

 

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The final step to control bleeding is to apply a PRESSURE BANDAGE over the wound. Note the distinction between a dressing and a bandage. A dressing may be a gauze square applied directly to a wound, while a bandage, such as roll gauze, is used to hold a dressing in place. Pressure should be used in applying the bandage. After the bandage is in place, it is important to check the pulse to make sure circulation is not interrupted. When faced with the need to control major bleeding, it is not important that the dressings you will use are sterile! use whatever you have at hand and work fast!

 

External bleeding

 

Apply direct pressure.
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 Place a clean, folded cloth (such as a clean, heavy gauze pad, washcloth, T-shirt, or sock)  directly over the injured area and firmly apply pressure. Do not remove a pad that is soaked through with blood; you will disturb any blood clots that have started to form to help stop the bleeding. If blood soaks through, place another pad on top of the soaked one and continue applying direct pressure. for 7-10 minutes.

 

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If the bleeding is from the ear, place a clean bandage over the ear, lay the victim on his side, and allow the blood to drain out through the bandage.

 

Elevate the injured part.
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Position the wounded part of the body above the level of the heart if possible while you apply direct pressure.

 

                                

 

 

 

   The circles show places to apply direct pressure on an artery in order to stop the flow of blood from an injury.

 

                                                   Pressure points.

 

 

 Know the pressure points.

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If direct pressure and elevation do not sufficiently slow the blood flow, find a pressure point.

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Large arteries found close to the skin's surface supply blood to the head and to each arm and leg.

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The most common pressure points used during first aid are located in the upper arms and in the creases above the upper legs.

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Apply pressure to the closest pressure point to the wound so that the artery is pressed between your fingers and the bone directly behind the artery. If using the pressure point on a leg, you may need to use the heel of your hand instead of your finger.

 

 Resort to a tourniquet.

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On very rare occasions everything listed above may fail. To prevent the victim from dying, you should apply a tourniquet.

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Once a tourniquet is applied, it should not be loosened or removed until the victim has reached medical help.

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Use a tourniquet only if everything listed above has failed. If you use a tourniquet, write down somewhere on the victim the time it was applied, so medical personnel will know how long it has been in place.

 

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When the bleeding slows or stops, tie the pad firmly in place with gauze strips, a necktie, strips of sheet, or a shoelace. Do not tie so tightly that blood flow to the rest of the limb is cut off. Stay with the person and keep the wound elevated until medical help arrives

 

A SLOW PULSE RATE, OR BLUISH FINGERTIPS OR TOES, SIGNAL A BANDAGE MAY BE IMPEDING CIRCULATION.

 

 Internal bleeding

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Internal bleeding results when blood vessels rupture, allowing blood to leak into body cavities.

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It could be a result of a direct blow to the body, a fracture, a sprain, or a bleeding ulcer.

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If a victim receives an injury to the chest or abdomen, internal bleeding should be suspected.

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He will probably feel pain and tenderness in the affected area.

 

 Other symptoms to watch for 

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Cold, clammy skin, Pale face and lips,  Weakness or fainting, Dizziness, Nausea, Thirstiness  Rapid, weak, irregular pulse, Shortness of breath, Dilated pupils, swelling or bruising at the site of injury.  The more symptoms that are experienced, the more extensive the internal bleeding is.

 

 Signs and symptoms of INTERNAL BLEEDING are:

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bruised, swollen, tender or rigid abdomen

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bruises on chest or signs of fractured ribs

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blood in vomit

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wounds that have penetrated the chest or abdomen

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bleeding from the rectum or vagina

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abnormal pulse and difficulty breathing

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cool, moist skin

 

 What to do for the victim 

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Check for an open airway and begin rescue breathing if necessary.

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Call for medical help as soon as possible and keep the victim comfortable until help arrives.

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The victim may rinse his mouth with water, but DO NOT give a victim of internal bleeding anything to drink.

 

 

 First aid in the field for internal bleeding is limited.

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If the injury appears to be a simple bruise, apply cold packs to slow bleeding, relieve pain and reduce swelling.

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If you suspect more severe internal bleeding, carefully monitor the patient and be prepared to administer CPR if required (and you are trained to do so).

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You should also reassure the victim, control external bleeding, care for shock (covered in next section), loosen tight-fitting clothing and place victim on side so fluids can drain from the mouth
 

 Nose bleed

 Why is the nose prone to bleeding?

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The nose has many blood vessels in it to help warm and humidify the air you breathe. These vessels lie close to the surface, making them easy to injure.

 What causes nosebleeds?

 Causes

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The most common causes are dryness (often caused by indoor heat in the winter) and nose picking. These two things work together--nose picking occurs more often when mucus in the nose is dry and crusty.

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Nose injury

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colds, allergies

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Strenuous activity

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High blood pressure

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Exposure to high altitudes

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Blowing your nose too hard

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Bleeding disorders. Infections causing decreased platelet ct. causing bleeding tendencies. (e.g Dengue)

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Cocaine use

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Taking drugs like aspirin that interfere with blood clotting.

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Children may stick small objects up the nose.

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Older people may have atherosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries"),

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Cause of nosebleeds often can't be determined.

 

What to do if you get a nosebleed

Try to stay calm. Most nosebleeds look much worse than they really are. Almost all nosebleeds can be treated at home.

 

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Sit down. Keeping your head above your heart will make your nose bleed less.

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Lean slightly forward to prevent blood from running into your throat. Leaning forward will allow the blood to drain out of your nose instead of down the back of your throat. If you lean back, you may swallow the blood. This can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

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Place cold, wet cloths on your nose to constrict the blood vessels in your nose and stop the bleeding.

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If blood is coming from only one nostril, press firmly at the top of that nostril.

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If both nostrils are bleeding, pinch your nostrils together for at least 10 minutes.

Use your thumb and index finger to squeeze together the soft portion of your nose. This area is located between the end of your nose and the hard, bony ridge that forms the bridge of your nose. Keep holding your nose until the bleeding stops. Don't let go for at least 5 minutes. If it's still bleeding, hold it again for 10 minutes straight.

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If bleeding continues, apply pressure for another 10 minutes.

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If the bleeding is the result of direct injury to the nose, only gentle pressure should be applied.

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If heavy bleeding persists or if nosebleeds recur frequently, consult a physician.

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Once the bleeding stops, don't do anything that may make it start again, such as bending over or blowing your nose.

                 

Pinch your nose to stop a nosebleed

 

 

 What will my doctor do for a nosebleed?
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Your doctor will ascertain the source of bleeding after examining the nose.

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If the bleeding doesn't stop on its own or with pressure applied, your doctor may cauterize the bleeding vessel or pack your nose to stop the bleeding.

 

  1. Cauterization involves using special solutions or an electrical or heating device to burn the vessel so that it stops bleeding. Your doctor will numb your nose before the procedure.

  1. Packing the nose involves putting special gauze or an inflatable latex balloon into the nose so that enough pressure is placed on the vessel to make it stop bleeding.

 

 Prevention of nosebleeds

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Keep children's fingernails short to discourage nose picking.

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Counteract the drying effects of indoor heated air by using a humidifier at night in your bedroom.

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Quit smoking. Smoking dries out your nose and also irritates it.

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Open your mouth when you sneeze.

 

 

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