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Anatomy of lungs and airways

 

                                                                         

                                        Lungs                                 Division of air passages inside lung

                                                         

Alveoli

 

Airways (bronchial system of lungs)

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The airway in lungs divide and subdivide inside, to form a branching net work of airways, which ultimately terminate into tiny air sacs called alveoli. Alveoli are crucial to respiration as exchange of oxygen and carbon-dioxide takes place here. 

 

lung 

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One  pair of light, spongy organs in the chest.

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The highly elastic lungs are the main part of the body's breathing system.

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They provide the mechanisms for inhaling air from which oxygen is extracted and for exhaling carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body.

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The lungs are served by two artery systems. The pulmonary arteries bring deoxygenated blood to the lungs for purification (oxygenation).  Oxygenated  blood from the lungs returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins, which is be pumped to entire body.

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The surfaces of the lungs cradle the heart. Each lung is cone shaped and has a peak, a base, three borders, and two surfaces. The peak is rounded and extends into the root of the neck about 4 cm above the first rib. The base of the lung is broad and curved, rests on the surface of the diaphragm, and moves with the diaphragm, down during inhaling and up during exhaling.

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The quantity of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after the deepest breath averages 3,700 cc, about 4 quarts.

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The lungs are composed of lobes that are smooth and shiny on their surface. The right lung contains three lobes; the left lung, two lobes. Each lung is covered with a thin, moist (pleural) membrane. An inner coat contains many elastic fibers lining the entire surface of the organ. Within this fibrous layer are secondary small lobes (lobules) divided into primary lobules, each of which consists of blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and a duct (alveolar) connecting with air spaces.

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The color of the lungs at birth is pinkish-white, and darkens in later life. The coloring comes from carbon granules that are inhaled from the atmosphere. The carbon deposits increase with age and are more abundant in men than women.

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The lungs of men are usually heavier and have a greater capacity than the lungs of women.

 

lung capacities, lung volumes that consist of two or more of the four primary (not overlapping) volumes. 

 

These are:

  • Expiratory reserve volume (the largest amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs after normal breathing out)

  • Inspiratory reserve volume (the largest amount of air that can be inhaled after normal breathing in)

  • Residual volume (the amount of air left in the lungs after completely exhaling)

  • Tidal volume (the amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing).

  • Functional residual capacity is the sum of the tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume. 

  • Inspiratory capacity is the sum of the tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume. 

  • Total lung capacity is the sum of the expiratory reserve volume, the tidal volume, and the inspiratory reserve volume. 

  • Total lung capacity, at the end of complete inhaling, is the sum of the functional residual capacity and the inspiratory capacity.

 

Key words

Respiration, breathing, the give and take of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body's tissues, from the lungs to the level of the cells. The rate changes with the age and condition of the person.

 

Respiratory cycle, breathing in followed by breathing out.

 

Respiratory tract ,  also called respiratory system. 

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The complex of organs and structures that transfers oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air outside and the blood flowing through the lungs.

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It also warms the air passing into the body.

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The speech function is helped by giving air for the throat (larynx) and the vocal cords.

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Every 24 hours about 500 cubic feet of air passes through the breathing tract of the average adult, who breathes in and out between 12 and 18 times a minute.

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The respiratory tract is divided into the upper and the lower respiratory tracts.

 

                                                             

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